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Metacognition and Content Knowledge

Content Knowledge and Scripts

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What is Content Knowledge?
Content knowledge is a prior knowledge about a problem you are trying to remember, which makes the problem easier to recall because you have already had some experience with it. A good example of content knowledge would be a child who has been taught how to add. This child would have an easier time learning how to multiply because he/she has already been educated in the basics of multiplication. If that child was not taught to add before hand the child would have a very difficult time learning how to multiply. There are 3 types of Content Knowledge, Declarative knowledge is the factual information that one knows. An example is knowing a specific math formula. Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something, of how to perform the steps in a process. For example knowing how to bake a cake and the steps in which that entails. Conditional knowledge is knowledge about when to use a procedure, skill, or strategy and when not to use it. Also when and why a procedure works and why one strategy works better than another.


What are Scripts?
Scripts are pre-existing knowledge of how to act in certain situations, what to expect and the order in which things happen. A good example of a script is how to act during school. At ages 3-4, children only remember a few details such as we go in, sit down and leave when we are finished. As we age we remember specfic aspects of the classroom such as we have learned that we should be on time (hopefully), sit down in our seats, not fall asleep (as hard as it may be at times), pay attention, take notes and when class is over we go off to our next class.  
     Scripts are similar to Schemes, but schemes are a pre-exitising group of information about memories, thoughts, and strategies which a child can use to determine how they want to act in a particular situation.


What is a Mental Map?
A Mental map is a cognitive representations of an actual familiar location such as a room, playground, etc. If we were asked to draw a map to your house for
a friend that would most likely be no problem. But for younger children this may be difficult even if they would be able to find a way there themselves. As children mature they develop mental routes throughout places they regularly visit such as their neighborhood or school. First the child would recognize specific landmarks, then they would put a group of landmarks together this is called route knowledge and lastly they would develop a mental map of the area.

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